Evolution in SNAPDRAGONS

Linaria - Linaria miller - Taxonomy

Linaria miller Gard. Dict. abridged ed. 4 2 (1754).

Annual, biennial or perennial herbs; stems heteromorphic or more or less homomorphic, the epicotylary stems usually few and degenerate, the hypocotylary secondary stems often abundant and dominant, the branches not cirrhous. Leaves homomorphic or somewhat heteromorphic, simple, entire, pinnately veined or with several subparallel major veins from base, sessile, usually verticillate below, alternate above. Flowers zygomorphic, pedicellate or sessile, in terminal bracteate racemes, spikes, panicles or rarely flowers solitary in leaf-axils. Bracts usually smaller than foliage leaves, sometimes leaf-like, very rarely subtending additional axillary shoots. Pedicels not cirrhous, sometimes becoming recurved or deflexed. Calyx deeply divided, the lobes entire, valvate, equal or unequal, the adaxial lobe longest or very rarely shortest, shorter than or rarely longer than corolla-tube. Corolla with tube more or less cylindrical, calcarate abaxially at base; limb bilabiate, the lips equal or somewhat unequal, the adaxial lip erecto-patent to patent, shorter than or sometimes longer than abaxial, the abaxial lip spreading to patent with prominent basal palate occluding or occasionally only partially occluding mouth of tube; spur narrowly conical, linear or filiform, often arcuate, usually conspicuous; lobes entire or very rarely emarginate. Fertile stamens 4, didynamous, included, the adjacent pairs of anthers marginally coherent, the connective not dilated above anthers; staminode minute. Style simple or bifid; stigma capitate, clavate, linear or sometimes with 2 (-3) discrete stigmatic areas, positioned between pairs of fertile stamens. Capsule oblong, ovoid or globose, the walls papery, the septum erect, straight; loculi many-seeded, equal or unequal, if unequal then adaxial exceeding abaxial, each loculus dehiscing by solitary pore opening by 3-5 teeth or valves from apex towards base. Seeds dorsi-ventrally or radially symmetrical or somewhat asymmetrical, ovoid, oblong, reniform, trigonous, tetrahedral or discoid, cristate, tuberculate, alveolate or smooth; hilum subbasal to submedian, often positioned in marginal ridge or wing of discoid seeds; ridges of angles or margins (1-) 2-6, thin and wing-like, inflated or interrupted and scarcely evident; periclinal wall of testa-cells tabular, tabular-convex or rarely concave, those of interstices and sides of ridges or tubercles often with median or marginal papilla, rarely bipapillate, smooth, verrucate, rugulate or reticulate; epicuticular waxes usually absent. Modified from Sutton (1988).

2n = 12, 24.

Europe except for extreme N, Asia except for SE and extreme N, N Africa, frequently introduced and naturalized elsewhere in temperate regions.

Type species: Linaria vulgaris Miller (Antirrhinum linaria L.).

Linaria species
Linaria aeruginea
Linaria albifrons
Linaria algarviana
Linaria alpina
Linaria altaica
Linaria amethystea
Linaria amoi
Linaria angustissima
Linaria anticaria
Linaria antilibanotica
Linaria arenaria
Linaria armeniaca
Linaria arvensis
Linaria atlantica
Linaria badalii
Linaria baligaliensis
Linaria bamianica
Linaria biebersteinii
Linaria bipartita
Linaria bipunctata
Linaria bordiana
Linaria brachyceras
Linaria bubanii
Linaria bungei
Linaria buriatica
Linaria caesia
Linaria capraria
Linaria cavanillesii
Linaria chalepensis
Linaria clementei
Linaria confertiflora
Linaria corifolia
Linaria cossonii
Linaria coutinhoi
Linaria cretacea
Linaria creticola
Linaria dalmatica
Linaria damascena
Linaria debilis
Linaria decipiens
Linaria depauperata
Linaria diffusa
Linaria dissita
Linaria elegans
Linaria elymaitica
Linaria fallax
Linaria fastigiata
Linaria faucicola
Linaria ficalhoana
Linaria filicaulis
Linaria flava
Linaria genistifolia
Linaria gharbensis
Linaria glacialis
Linaria glauca
Linaria grandiflora
Linaria griffithsii
Linaria haelava
Linaria hellenica
Linaria hepatica
Linaria hirta
Linaria huteri
Linaria iconia
Linaria incarnata
Linaria incompleta
Linaria intricata
Linaria japonica
Linaria joppensis
Linaria kokanica
Linaria kulabensis
Linaria kurdica
Linaria latifolia
Linaria laxiflora
Linaria leptoceras
Linaria lilacina
Linaria lineolata
Linaria loeselii
Linaria macrophylla
Linaria macroura
Linaria maroccana
Linaria melampyroides
Linaria meyeri
Linaria michauxii
Linaria micrantha
Linaria microsepala
Linaria miller
Linaria multicaulis
Linaria munbyana
Linaria nivea
Linaria nurensis
Linaria oblongifolia
Linaria odora
Linaria oligantha
Linaria onubensis
Linaria paradoxa
Linaria parviracemosa
Linaria pedicellata
Linaria pedunculata
Linaria pelisseriana
Linaria peloponnesiaca
Linaria peltieri
Linaria pinifolia
Linaria platycalyx
Linaria polygalifolia
Linaria popovii
Linaria propinqua
Linaria pseudolaxiflora
Linaria pseudoviscosa
Linaria purpurea
Linaria pyramidalis
Linaria ramosa
Linaria reflexa
Linaria remotiflora
Linaria repens
Linaria ricardoi
Linaria riffea
Linaria rubioides
Linaria salzmannii
Linaria satureioides
Linaria saxatilis
Linaria schelkownikowii
Linaria schirvanica
Linaria sessilis
Linaria simplex
Linaria spartea
Linaria striatella
Linaria supina
Linaria tarhunensis
Linaria tenuis
Linaria thibetica
Linaria thymifolia
Linaria tingitana
Linaria tonzigii
Linaria transiliensis
Linaria triornithophora
Linaria triphylla
Linaria tristis
Linaria tuberculata
Linaria tursica
Linaria unaiensis
Linaria venosa
Linaria ventricosa
Linaria veratrifolia
Linaria verticillata
Linaria virgata
Linaria viscosa
Linaria vulgaris
Linaria warionis
Linaria weilleri
Linaria yunnanensis

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