Evolution in SNAPDRAGONS

Linaria - Linaria tristis - Taxonomy

Linaria tristis (L.) Miller, Gard. Dict. ed. 8: no. 8 (1768).

Glaucous perennial; fertile stems usually numerous, 9-50 (-90) cm, procumbent to ascending or rarely suberect, simple or sometimes branched; sterile stems numerous. Leaves of fertile stems 6-30 (-40) x 1-3.5 (-5) mm, linear to oblong-elliptic, obtuse to subacute, usually flat, attenuate, verticillate in whorls of 4-6 below, alternate above; leaves of sterile stems similar to those of fertile stems but usually narrower and in whorls of 4-6. Inflorescence with 2-15 (-25) flowers, dense in flower, somewhat lax in fruit. Bracts 3-6 (-9) mm, linear to linear-oblanceolate, subacute. Pedicels 0.5-4 mm in flower, 2.5-6 mm in fruit. Calyx-lobes unequal, linear to spathulate, subacute or acute; adaxial lobe 5-9 x 0.6-1.6 mm; abaxial lobes 4-5.5 x 1.2-2.8 mm. Corolla with tube 6-8 mm broad; adaxial lip sinus 1.3-3 mm; abaxial lip sinus 0.8-1.5 mm; spur 2.5-4 mm broad at base. Capsule (3.5-) 5-8 mm, globose, glabrous or sparse1y glandular­pubescent at apex. Seeds (1.6-) 2.2-3.2 mm, suborbicular to orbicular, concavo-convex; hilum very narrow; wing (0.5-) 0.7-1.2 mm broad, smooth, grey, membranous towards margin; disc reniform, smooth, without tubercles or papillae, blackish-grey; periclinal wall of testa-cells convex-tabular, more or less smooth, the anticlinal walls of testa-cells angular or sinuate with conspicuous ridge over junction. Modified from Sutton (1988).

S Spain, Portugal?, NW Africa. Ag Hs Ma Lu?

Type: Dillenius, Hortus Elthamensis 1: icon. no. 164, fig. 199 (lecto. Valdés, 1970a: 140, 146).


a. Linaria tristis subsp. tristis.

Fertile stems up to 40 (-90) cm, glabrous be1ow, the inflorescence axis dense1y glandular­pubescent. Leaves of fertile stems somewhat fleshy or thin, flat, evenly spaced along stems. Calyx-lobes densely glandular-pubescent. Corolla (18-) 21-28 mm, yellow, often tinged with purplish-brown or with green veins, the palate yellow or purple; spur (8.5-) 10-14 mm, curved, more or less equalling rest of corolla.

2n = 12 (Heitz, 1926: 646; 1927a: 51).

SW Spain. Hs.



b. Linaria tristis subsp. pectinata (Pau & Font Quer) Maire, Bull. Soco Hist. Nat. Afr. Nord  22: 308 (1931).

Fertile stems up to 40 cm, glabrous be1ow, the inflorescence axis sparsely glandular-pubescent or subglabrous. Leaves of fertile stems thin, flat, evenly spaced along stems. Calyx-lobes sparsely glandular-pubescent. Corolla 23-25 mm, deep yellow; spur 10-14 mm, curved, more or less equalling rest of corolla.

Morocco (Rif). Ma.

Type: MOROCCO: [R]; montis Kalaa, supra Xauen, 900 m, 22 iv 1928 Font Quer 360 (iso. BM!).


c. Linaria tristis subsp. marginata (Desf.) Maire, Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afr. Nord 23: 202 (1932).

Fertile stems up to 50 cm, glabrous below, the inflorescence axis subglabrous. Leaves thin, flat, more or less evenly spaced along stems. Calyx-lobes subglabrous or sparsely glandular-pubescent. Corolla 29-34 cm, whitish-or greenish-yellow, the palate purple; spur 17-20 mm, straight or somewhat curved, greatly exceeding rest of corolla.

Algeria, Morocco (Montagnes des Beni-Snassen). Ag Ma.

Type: ALGERIA: [03]; "Alger., Tlemsen" Desfontaines s.n. (lecto. (Valdés, 1970a: 143-144) FI!).


d. Linaria tristis subsp. mesatlantica D.A. Sutton, subsp. nov.

A Linaria tristi (L.) Miller subsp. tristi caulibus basin versus et foliis infimis pilis brevibus glandulosis praedítis, calycis lobis glabris vel subglabris, corolla pallidiore differt, a Linaria tristi subsp. lurida (Ball) Maire foliis plerumque secus caules aequaliter dispositis, non subsucculentis differt.

Caules fertiles ad 25 cm longis, basin versus plerumque glanduloso-puberuli, axe inflorescentiae glabro vel subglabro. Folia caulium fertilium tenues, margine plana vel parum revoluta, per caules aequaliter disposita. Calycis lobi glabri vel subglabri. Corolla 20-26 mm longa, alba vel luteola, venis viridibus vel purpurascentibus praedita, palato saepe purpureo, calcari 9-14 mm longo, arcuato, corollae partem relictam plus minusve aequanti. Fertile stems up to 25 cm, usually glandular-puberulent below, the inflorescence axis glabrous or subglabrous. Leaves of fertile stems thin, the margin flat or somewhat revolute, evenly spaced along the stems. Calyx-lobes glabrous or subglabrous. Corolla 20-26 mm, white or whitish­yellow with green or purple veins, the palate often purple; spur 9-14 mm, curved, more or less equalling rest of corolla.

Morocco (Middle Atlas). Ma.

Type: MOROCCO: Ma; Rocks, Azrou, 18 iv 1936 Simpson 36.192 (holo. BM!).


e. Linaria tristis subsp. lurida (Ball) Maire, Cavanillesia 4(1-3): 17 (1931).

Fertile stems up to 20 cm, glabrous below, the inflorescence axis glabrous or sparsely glandular­pubescent. Leaves of fertile stems subsucculent, crowded towards base of stems, flat or somewhat revolute. Calyx-lobes glabrous. Corolla 20-26 mm, whitish-yellow tinged with purple or brown, the palate usually dark violet; spur 9-14 mm, curved, more or less equalling rest of corolla.

Morocco (High Atlas). Ma.

Type: MOROCCO: Ga; ex regione superiori Atlantis majoris in jugo Tagherot, 2530-3630 m, 15 v 1871 Ball s.n. (holo. K!).


Linaria species
Linaria aeruginea
Linaria albifrons
Linaria algarviana
Linaria alpina
Linaria altaica
Linaria amethystea
Linaria amoi
Linaria angustissima
Linaria anticaria
Linaria antilibanotica
Linaria arenaria
Linaria armeniaca
Linaria arvensis
Linaria atlantica
Linaria badalii
Linaria baligaliensis
Linaria bamianica
Linaria biebersteinii
Linaria bipartita
Linaria bipunctata
Linaria bordiana
Linaria brachyceras
Linaria bubanii
Linaria bungei
Linaria buriatica
Linaria caesia
Linaria capraria
Linaria cavanillesii
Linaria chalepensis
Linaria clementei
Linaria confertiflora
Linaria corifolia
Linaria cossonii
Linaria coutinhoi
Linaria cretacea
Linaria creticola
Linaria dalmatica
Linaria damascena
Linaria debilis
Linaria decipiens
Linaria depauperata
Linaria diffusa
Linaria dissita
Linaria elegans
Linaria elymaitica
Linaria fallax
Linaria fastigiata
Linaria faucicola
Linaria ficalhoana
Linaria filicaulis
Linaria flava
Linaria genistifolia
Linaria gharbensis
Linaria glacialis
Linaria glauca
Linaria grandiflora
Linaria griffithsii
Linaria haelava
Linaria hellenica
Linaria hepatica
Linaria hirta
Linaria huteri
Linaria iconia
Linaria incarnata
Linaria incompleta
Linaria intricata
Linaria japonica
Linaria joppensis
Linaria kokanica
Linaria kulabensis
Linaria kurdica
Linaria latifolia
Linaria laxiflora
Linaria leptoceras
Linaria lilacina
Linaria lineolata
Linaria loeselii
Linaria macrophylla
Linaria macroura
Linaria maroccana
Linaria melampyroides
Linaria meyeri
Linaria michauxii
Linaria micrantha
Linaria microsepala
Linaria miller
Linaria multicaulis
Linaria munbyana
Linaria nivea
Linaria nurensis
Linaria oblongifolia
Linaria odora
Linaria oligantha
Linaria onubensis
Linaria paradoxa
Linaria parviracemosa
Linaria pedicellata
Linaria pedunculata
Linaria pelisseriana
Linaria peloponnesiaca
Linaria peltieri
Linaria pinifolia
Linaria platycalyx
Linaria polygalifolia
Linaria popovii
Linaria propinqua
Linaria pseudolaxiflora
Linaria pseudoviscosa
Linaria purpurea
Linaria pyramidalis
Linaria ramosa
Linaria reflexa
Linaria remotiflora
Linaria repens
Linaria ricardoi
Linaria riffea
Linaria rubioides
Linaria salzmannii
Linaria satureioides
Linaria saxatilis
Linaria schelkownikowii
Linaria schirvanica
Linaria sessilis
Linaria simplex
Linaria spartea
Linaria striatella
Linaria supina
Linaria tarhunensis
Linaria tenuis
Linaria thibetica
Linaria thymifolia
Linaria tingitana
Linaria tonzigii
Linaria transiliensis
Linaria triornithophora
Linaria triphylla
Linaria tristis
Linaria tuberculata
Linaria tursica
Linaria unaiensis
Linaria venosa
Linaria ventricosa
Linaria veratrifolia
Linaria verticillata
Linaria virgata
Linaria viscosa
Linaria vulgaris
Linaria warionis
Linaria weilleri
Linaria yunnanensis

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