Evolution in SNAPDRAGONS


Anarrhinum - Taxonomy



Anarrhinum Desf. Anarrhinum Desf., Fl. Atl. 2: 5 1 (1798), nom. conserv. Biennial or perennial herbs or dwarf shrubs; stems homomorphic, ascending to erect, the branches not cirrhous. Leaves heteromorphic, rarely more or less homomorphic; basal leaves entire, dentate or lobed, pinnately veined or often with severa1 veins from the base, petiolate, often forming a rosette, the petioles not cirrhous; cauline leaves usually deeply palmatisect with 3-7 segments, sometimes undivided, the divisions dentate or entire, petiolate or subsessile, alternate. Flowers zygomorphic, pedicellate or subsessile, in racemes or panicles. Bracts simple or 3-fid, linear, linear-lanceolate or with segments linear-lanceolate, the lowermost transitional to foliage leaves or al1 differing from foliage leaves, not subtending additional branches. Pedicels not cirrhous or reflexed. Calyx deeply or sometimes shallowly divided, the lobes more or less equal, valvate, entire, not accrescent, shorter than or equalling corolla-tube. Corolla with tube cylindrical, calcarate or gibbous abaxially at base; limb bilabiate, the lips subequal, the adaxial lip patent or reflexed, the abaxial lip erecto-patent, scarcely exceeding adaxial, the basal palate poorly developed, not occluding mouth of tube; lobes entire. Fertile stamens 4, didynamous, included, the anthers marginally coherent forming ring, the connective not dilated above anther; staminode minute. Style simple, erect: stigma scarcely clavate, entire, passing through centre of ring of anthers. Capsule subglobose, the walls papyraceous to somewhat coriaceous, the septum erect, straight; loculi equal, many-seeded, dehiscence more or less simultaneous or occasionally asynchronous, each loculus with solitary, elongate, usually entire pore opening by parallel-sided, ligulate valve, splitting from apex more or less to base. Seeds bilaterally to more or less radially symmetrical, ellipsoid to somewhat ovoid, somewhat 3-angled in cross-section, tuberculate, those on angles occasionally much larger than those on faces; hilum more or less median to subbasal; periclinal wall of testa-cells tabular-convex, that of interstitial cells with median papilla, that of tubercles usually without papilla, wrinkled or rugose especially over and around papilla, smooth towards margins; epicuticular waxes absent. By Sutton (1988)

Anarrhinum species
A. bellidifolium
A. corsicum
A. duriminium
A. forskaohlii
A. fruticosum
A. laxiflorum
A. longipedicellatum
A. pedatum

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