Evolution in SNAPDRAGONS


Cymbalaria - Taxonomy



Cymbalaria Hill, Br. Herb.: 113 (1756). Herbs, usually short-lived perennials or sometimes behaving as annuals; stems homomorphic, trailing, procumbent or decumbent, the branches not cirrhous. Leaves homomorphic, simple, reniform to orbicular, lobed or rarely entire, palmately-veined, petiolate, opposite or alternate; petioles not cirrhous. Flowers zygomorphic, pedicellate, solitary in leaf-axils. Floral leaves not subtending additional axillary shoots. Pedicels not cirrhous, often reflexed in fruit, becoming thickened, often burying capsules in substrate. Calyx deeply divided, the lobes entire, valvate, rarely accrescent, subequal to unequal with adaxial lobe exceeding abaxial 4 lobes, shorter than corolla-tube. Corolla with tube cylindrical, calcarate or rarely gibbous abaxially at base; limb bilabiate, the lips more or less equal, the adaxial lip patent, the abaxial lip spreading with prominent basal palate occluding mouth of tube; spur conical or cylindrical, usually conspic- uous; lobes entire. Fertile stamens 4, didynamous, included, the adjacent pairs of anthers marginally coherent, the connective not dilated above anther; staminode minute. Style undivided, erect; stigma scarcely clavate, entire, positioned between anthers of fertile stamens. Capsule more or less globose, the walls papyraceous, the septum erect, straight; loculi equal, many-seeded or rarely with solitary seed per loculus, dehiscing simultaneously or rarely indehiscent, each loculus dehiscing by solitary pore, opening by 3-7 irregular valves, from apex more or less to base. Seeds more or less radially symmetrical, globose, ovoid, ellipsoid or conical-ovoid, rarely forming concrescent mass, tuberculate, cristate, alveolate or rarely more or less smooth; hilum subbasal; ridges discrete or anastomosed, rarely wing-like; periclinal wall of testa-cells tabular or tabular-convex, that of cells from interstices with median papilla, that of cells forming ridges or tubercles usually without papilla; epicuticular waxes present, finely granulate. Modified from Sutton (1988)

Cymbalaria species
C. aequitriloba
C. hepaticifolia
C. longipes
C. microcalyx
C. muelleri
C. muralis
C. pallida
C. pilosa
C. puttula

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