The Echinosteliales (Myxomycetes): an INTKEY package for interactive, illustrated identification and information retrieval

Francisco Pando

Logo: Clastoderma +DELTA

WB01586_.gif (1523 bytes) Index WB01586_.gif (1523 bytes) Introduction, methodology, results WB01586_.gif (1523 bytes) Citation  WB01586_.gif (1523 bytes) Acknowledgements
WB01586_.gif (1523 bytes)References
  WB01586_.gif (1523 bytes) Identification and Information Retrieval WB01586_.gif (1523 bytes) Descriptions
WB01586_.gif (1523 bytes) Nomenclature  WB01586_.gif (1523 bytes) Traditional keys 
tic.GIF (126 bytes) Character List WB01586_.gif (1523 bytes) DELTA data files

Sporophore: general features

1. <sporophore type>/ [ESPLT]

1. aethalia/
2. pseudoaethalia/
3. pasmodiocarps/
4. subplasmodiocaps/
5. sporocarps/

See introduction to the character list.

2. <habit>/ [ESPLT]

1. isolated/
2. scattered/
3. gregarious/
4. in couples over a common hypothallus/
5. grouped in small groups <under ten sporocarps per group>/
6. grouped in large groups <ten or more sporangia per group>/
7. crowded/
8. heaped/

3. <sporophore total height when it is not sessile and globose or subglobo>/ [ESPLT]

Ám high/

4. <sporocarp stalk>/ [ESPLT]

1. stalked/
2. short-stalked <1/5-1 times the height of the sporangium>/
3. substalked <sporotheca raised over the substratum up to 1/5 the sporotheca diam.>/
4. subsessile, over a narrowed base <tangent to the substratum>/
5. sessile/

5. spores borne/ [ESPLT]

1. internally/
2. externally/

6. <esporophore> when fresh,/ [EL]

1. hyaline/
2. white (263. White)/
3. yellowish white (92. y White)/
4. yellow/
5. brilliant yellow (83.brill. Y)/
6. moderate yellow (87.m. Y)/
7. moderate yellowish-brown (77.m. y Br)/
8. grayish yellowish pink (32. gy. y Pink)/
9. brownish pink (33.br Pink)/
10. moderate brown (58.m. Br)/
11. dark grayish brown (62.d. gr Br)/
12. blackish brown (65.br Black)/
13. pale cinnamom/
14. rosaceous-brown/
15. light brown (57.l.Br)/
16. cream/

7. <sporophore> when mature, <<general color>>/ [ESPLT]

1. hyaline/
2. yellowish white (92.y White)/
3. brilliant yellow (83.brill. Y)/
4. moderate yellow (87.m. Y.)/
5. light yellowish brown (76. l. y Br)/
6. pink/
7. pink-brown/
8. light brown (57.l. Br)/
9. ferrugineous/
10. moderate brown (58.m. Br)/
11. dark grayish brown (62.d. gy. Br.)/
12. browish black (65.br Black)/
13. moderate greenish yellow (102.m. g Y)/
14. dark bluish Gray (192.d. b Gray)/
15. dull black/
16. strong yellow (84.s. Y)/
17. black (267.Black)/
18. yellowish/
19. bronze brown/
20. light orange (52.l. O)/
21. purplish/

Sporotheca

8. sporotheca <shape>/ [ESPTL]

1. oblate <length/width less than 0.9>/
2. pulvinate <length/width 0.75-0.9>/
3. globose <length/width 1-1.05>/
4. subglobose <length/width 1.05-1.15>/
5. ellipsoid <length/width 1.15-1.6>/
6. oval/fusiform <length/width 1.6-2>/
7. cylindrical <length/width over 2>/

It expresses the sporocarp logitudinal-transversal axes ratio. State names after Hawksworth & al.1995:420-421.

9. sporotheca <diam.>/ [ESPLT]

Ám in diam./

10. sporotheca <outline>/ [ESPTL]

1. ovoid/
2. obovoid/
3. ellipsoidal/
4. subcylindrical/
5. urniform/

It describes the sporotheca outline when this is ellipsoidal, oval, or fusiform.

11. sporotheca <width <sporotheca other than spherical>>/ [ESPLT]

Ám wide/

same as diam. for sporocarps circular in top view.

12. sporotheca <height when no globose or subglobose>/ [ESPT]

Ám high/

13. sporotheca <length when the sporotheca is not globose or subglobose>/ [ESPLT]

Ám long/

It must be measured parallel to the substratum.

14. dehiscence/ [ESPLT]

1. opercular/
2. by a longitudinal slit/
3. petaloid/
4. irregular/
5. by angular platelets/
6. rupturing in a circumscissile manner along the margin of the base/
7. the whole preidium acting as a lid/

only applicable for no completely evanescent peridia.

 

Hypothallus

15. hypothallus/ [ESPLT]

1. common to a group of sporocarps/
2. common to a group of sporocarps forming a net-like structure/
3. as ample individual discs <over three times the stalk diam. at base>/
4. as narrow individual discs or rims <under three times the stalk diam. at base>/
5. inconspicuous/

16. hypothallus <nature>/ [ESPLT]

1. membranous/
2. thick/

Stalk

17. stalk <type>/ [ESPLT]

1. present <with a well-defined external layer>/
2. as a mere extension of the hypothallus <without a well-defined external layer>/
3. absent/ this is the sporocarp part that separates the sporotheca from the substratum. It can be an hypotallus extension or a structure with distinct features.

18. stalk <length up to the sporotheca>/ [ESPLT]

Ám long/

19. stalk <diam at the apex>/ [ESPLT]

Ám diam at the apex/

20. stalk <diam base>/ [ESPLT]

Ám diam at the base/

21. stalk arising from a <base>/ [ESPT]

1. a non expanded base/
2. an expanded base/

Expanded base is such that expands beyond the hypothetical extension of the middle section towards the substratum.

22. stalk <straightness>/ [ESPLT]

1. straight/
2. slightly flexousus/
3. nodding/
4. tortuous/

23. stalk <shape>/ [ESPLT]

1. cylindrical/
2. tapering to the apex/
3. with two portions divided by an oval swelling/

24. stalk <opacity>/ [ESPLT]

1. opaque/
2. opaque but translucent at base/
3. translucent/

25. stalk under transmitted light <color>/ [ESPLT]

1. hyaline/
2. pale yellow (89. p.Y)/
3. brilliant yellow (83.brill. Y)/
4. moderate yellow (87.m. Y)/
5. red/
6. brown/
7. black (267.Black)/
8. strong yellow (84.s. Y)/
9. moderate redish brown (43.m. r Br)/
10. cream/

26. stalk under reflected light <color>/ [ESPLT]

1. brown/
2. yellow/
3. black/

27. stalk <hollowness (as seen by transmitted light)>/ [ESPLT]

1. hollow/
2. filled/

28. stalk with <filled>/ [ESPLT]

1. granular material/
2. spore-like cells/
3. fibres/
4. dark granules/

29. up to <granular material filling the stalk>/ [E]

1. 1/6, or less/
2. 1/3/
3. 1/2/
4. 2/3, or more/
5. absent/

30. stalk <apical apophysis>/ [E]

1. topped with a hollow apophysis/
2. hollow apophysis lacking/

After WHITNEY & OLIVE (1982). This character separates Echinostelium (apophisis lacking) from Cavostelium.

 

Peridium

31. peridium <presence>/ [ESPLT]

1. persistent as a whole/
2. persistent as fragments which cling to the tips of the capillitium/
3. persisting bassally/
4. persisting as a net of nodes or ribs interconnected/
5. completely fugaceous/

32. peridium when mature as <persisting when mature as>/ [ESPTL]

1. a collar <h/r:0-0.25>/
2. a saucer-shaped calyculus <h/r: 0.25-0.75>/
3. a funnel-shaped calyculus <h/r:0.75-1.50>/
4. a trumpet-shaped calyculus <h/r >1.50>/

33. peridium <basal remains diam.>/ [EST]

Ám in diam/

34. peridium, under transmitted light <color>/ [ESPLT]

1. red/
2. brown/
3. rosaceous-brown/
4. moderate yellowish brown (77.m. y Br)/
5. nearly hyaline/
6. light yellowish brown (94. l. y Br)/
7. olivaceous/
8. moderate redish brown (43.m. r Br)/
9. light yellowish brown (76. l. y Br)/
10. brown orange (54.br O)/
11. grayish greenish yellow (105.gy. g Y)/
12. pale ocraceous/
13. yellowish white (92.y White)/
14. grayish yellow (90 gr. Y)/
15. dark grayish brown (81 d. gr. Br.)/

 

Capillitium

35. capillitium <development>/ [E]

1. absent/
2. rudimentary <less than tree nodes>/
3. scanty <between three and six nodes>/
4. well developed <with over six nodes>/

capillitium development is measured in number of nodes.

36. capillitium <polarity>/ [PTES]

1. isotropic; with the same features all over it/
2. showing some zonal differentiation <lower-upper/inner-outer>/

37. capillitium <type>/ [ESPLT]

1. made of lime tubules/
2. present as hollow tubules/
3. made of solid threads <apparently>/
4. of free elaters/
5. present as pseudocapillitium/
6. absent/

38. capillitium <branching>/ [ES]

1. very branched <over four nodes per branch>/
2. fairly branched <between four and three nodes>/
3. scattered branched <one to two>/
4. no branching at all/

Capillitium branching is measured by counting nodes from main branch base to the tips. Terminal nodes must not be counted.

39. capillitium <branching type>/ [ESPT]

1. dichotomous/
2. mostly splitting dicotomously/
3. with some dichotomous branching/
4. no dichotomous/

40. peripherial capillitium <net>/ [ES]

1. forming a complete net/
2. forming an incomplete net/
3. no forming a net/

41. peripherial capillitium <free ends>/ [ES]

1. with all or most of the ends free/
2. with frecuent free ends/
3. often ending free <about half of the ends>/
4. with scanty free ends <between 40% and 25% of the ends>/
5. with few or no free ends <less than 25% of the ends>/

42. peripherial capilitium threads <thickness>/ [ES]

1. delicate <less 1 Ám in diam.>/
2. stout <over 1 Ám in diam.>/

43. peripherial capillitium threads <Ám thick>/ [ES]

Ám thick/

44. internal capillitium <density>/ [ES]

1. dense/
2. lax/
3. lacking/

45. internal capillitium <flexuosity>/ [ES]

1. strongly sinuose <arches over 180░>/
2. sinuate <arches under 180░>/
3. rigid/

46. internal capillitium <anastomoses>/ [ES]

1. without or hardly with anastomoses <0-5%>/
2. with few anastomoses <5-30%>/
3. fairly anastomosed <30-70%>/
4. mostly anastomosed <70-95%>/
5. completely or nearly anastomosed <100-95%>/

Columella

47. columella/ [SE]

1. present/
2. absent/

48. columella <shape in Echinostelium>/ [E]

1. flattened/
2. conical/
3. cylindrical/
4. fusiform/
5. pedunculate-hemispheric/
6. pedunculate-lenticular/
7. crescent-shaped in optical section/

49. columella <relative length>/ [SE]

1. nearly reaching the apex/
2. about 2/3 of the spore containing part height <3/5-4/5>/
3. about half way the sporotheca <2/5-3/5 of its total height>/
4. reaching c. 1/3 the total height of the sporotheca <1/5-2/5 of its total height>/
5. very short or absent <less than 1/5 of the total height of the sporotheca>/

50. columella <apex>/ [SE]

1. expanded at the apex/
2. capped with an apical disk/
3. becoming flexuose at the apex/
4. dissipating in the primary capillitial branches/
5. folked in two thick primary branches/
6. ending abruptly/

51. columella <length>/ [SE]

Ám long/

52. columella under transmitted light <<color in Echinostelium>>/ [E]

1. hyaline/
2. yellowish white (92.y White)/
3. yellow/
4. brilliant yellow (83.brill. Y)/
5. moderate yellow (87.m. Y)/
6. moderate yellowish-brown (77.m. y Br)/
7. light brown (57.l. Br)/
8. brown/
9. dark olive brown (96.d.Ol Br)/
10. black (267.Black)/

 

Spores and spore-like body

53. spores <clusters>/ [ESPLT]

1. in tight clusters/
2. in loose clusters/
3. free/

54. spores <in clusters of>/ [ESPLT]

spores/

55. spores in mass,/ [ESPLT]

1. ferrugineus brown/
2. brownish black (65.br Black)/
3. hyaline/
4. white (263.White)/
5. yellowish white (92.y. White)/
6. pink/
7. gray/
8. dark grayish brown (62.d. gy Br)/
9. moderate yellowish brown (77.m. y Br)/
10. moderate brown (58.m. Br.)/
11. deep yellow (85. deep Y)/
12. ocraceous/
13. black (267.Black)/
14. dark/
15. drak olive brown/
16. light olive brown (94.l. Ol Br)/

56. spores under transmitted light <color>/ [ELSPT]

1. hyaline/
2. pale yellow (89. p. Y)/
3. yellow/
4. grayish yellowish pink (32. gy. y Pink)/
5. rosy-brown/
6. brown/
7. faintly cinnamon/
8. light brownish gray (63 l. br.Gy)/
9. light brown (57. l. Br)/
10. strong yellow (84.s. Y)/
11. light olive brown (94.l. Ol Br)/
12. moderate olive brown (95. m. Ol Br)/
13. ferrugineus/
14. greyish brown (64.br Gray)/
15. grayish greenish yellow (105.gy. g Y)/
16. dark gray (266. d. Gray)/
17. light olive gray (112.l. Ol Gy)/
18. light yellowish brown (76. l. y Br)/
19. yellowish white (92.y White)/

57. spores <shape>/ [ESPLT]

1. globose/
2. subglobose/
3. subpolyhedral/
4. ovoid/
5. globose-crested/

58. spores <diam.>/ [ESPLT]

Ám in diam./

59. spores <length>/ [ESPLT]

Ám long/

60. <ornamentation aspect>/ [ESPLT]

1. minutely <only visible with x100 objective and phase-contrast or Normarski>/
2. faintly <only visible with x100 objective>/
3. distinctly <visible with x40 objective>/
4. prominently <visible with x20 objective>/

61. spores <ornamentation density>/ [ESPLT]

1. scattered/
2. densely/
3. very densely <some of the marks touch each other>/

62. spores <marks a)>/ [ESPLT]

1. roughened/
2. punctate/
3. spinulose/
4. warted/
5. echinulate/
6. verrucose/
7. marked with protuberances/
8. banded/
9. smooth/

63. spores <type b marks>/ [ESPLT]

1. roughened/
2. punctate/
3. with marks/
4. banded/

64. spores <marks apex>/ [ESPLT]

1. sharp/
2. blunt/

65. spore ornamentation <distribution>/ [ESPLT]

1. regularly/
2. irregularly/
3. with darker clusters/
4. with paler clusters/
5. forming a reticulum/

66. spore ornamentation <distribution polarity>/ [ESPLT]

1. much more strongly marked on one side/
2. more marked on one side/
3. evenly distributed/

67. <forming a reticulum>/ [ESPLT]

1. complete/
2. incomplete/

68. meshes/ [ESPLT]

Ám in diam/

69. meshes to the hemisphere/ [ESPLT]

meshes/

70. bands <width>/ [ESPLT]

1. narrow <less than 0.5 Ám>/
2. wide <over 0.5 Ám>/

71. bands <length>/ [ESPLT]

1. long <over half spore diam.>/
2. short <under half spore diam.>/

72. secondary ornamentation/ [ESPLT]

1. present/
2. absent/

Reticulated spore can show some additional markings which we designate as secondary marks.

73. secondary ornamentation made of/ [ESPLT]

1. prominently/
2. distinctly/
3. faintly/
4. minutely/

74. secondary mark type/ [ESPLT]

1. roughened/
2. punctated/
3. spinulose/
4. warted/
5. echinulate/
6. verrucose/
7. with protuberances/

75. spore <mark height>/ [ESPLT]

Ám/

76. spore wall <thickness>/ [ESPLT]

1. thick/
2. thin/

77. spore wall <uniformity>/ [ESPLT]

1. of uniform thickness/
2. with a diffuse thinner area/
3. with a well-defined thinner area/
4. bearing spore-to-spore thickened articular areas/

78. spore wall <by electron transmission microscopy>/ [E]

1. single/
2. bi-layered/

After WHITNEY & OLIVE (1982). This characters has been observed in C.apophysatum, Echinostelium bisporum, E. lunatum and E. minutum. It is assumend that all Echinostelim spp. have bi-layered spore wall.

79. articular surfaces <shape>/ [E]

1. circular/
2. as two crescents confronted/

80. articular surfaces <thickness>/ [E]

1. thin <less than 1 Ám>/
2. prominent <more than 1 Ám>/

81. articular surfaces <margins>/ [E]

1. with edges tapering to the spore surface/
2. with sharply truncate margins/

82. spore-like body <with the same characters than the spores>/ [E]

1. present/
2. absent/

83. spores <number>/ [E]

1. one/
2. two/
3. many/

Non sporophore-relaled characters

84. basal flagellar bodies of swarm cells/ [E]

1. unassociated/
2. associated in pairs/

Observed in Cavostelium apophysatum by SPIEGEL (1981); in several Echinostelium spp. by FURTADO & OLIVE (1970), INCHEE (1976) and OLIVE & STOIANOVITCH (1971)

85. protoplasts <number in each spore>/ [E]

protoplasts in each spore/

86. <plasmodium>/ [ESPLT]

1. protoplasmodium/
2. aphanoplasmodium/
3. intermediate between aphano and phaneroplasmodium/
4. phaneroplasmodium/

87. <plasmodium color>/ [ESPLT]

1. red/
2. pink/
3. hyaline/
4. translucent white/
5. ocraceous brown/

88. living on <substrate>/ [ESPLT]

1. bark of living <trees>/
2. dead wood/
3. leaves/
4. dung/
5. fungi/
6. plant litter/

89. of <species>/ [ESPLT]

1. Abies pinsapo/
2. Arbutus unedo/
3. Juniperus thurifera/
4. Juniperus sabina/
5. Juniperus oxycedrus/
6. Quercus pyrenaica/
7. Quercus ilex/
8. Quercus faginea/
9. Quercus coccifera/
10. Quercus suber/
11. Olea europaea/
12. Tamarix gallica/
13. Pistacia lentiscus/
14. Tamarix boveana/
15. Tetraclinis articulata/
16. Juniperus phoenicia/
17. Pinus sp./

90.  number of represented collections/ [ESPLT]

collection/

 

CSIC

Real JardÝn Botßnico

Webmaster

DELTA Page prepared by F.Pando

 Last update: 15 July 1999