The Echinosteliales (Myxomycetes): an INTKEY package for interactive, illustrated identification and information retrieval

Francisco Pando

Logo: Clastoderma +DELTA

WB01586_.gif (1523 bytes) Index  WB01586_.gif (1523 bytes) Introduction, methodology, results   WB01586_.gif (1523 bytes) Citation WB01586_.gif (1523 bytes) Acknowledgements
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References   WB01586_.gif (1523 bytes) Identification and Information Retrieval tic.GIF (126 bytes) Descriptions
WB01586_.gif (1523 bytes) Nomenclature  WB01586_.gif (1523 bytes) Traditional keys  WB01586_.gif (1523 bytes) Character List  WB01586_.gif (1523 bytes) DELTA data files

Echinosteliales

Barbeyella minutissima Meyl. Clastoderma debaryanum A.Blytt Clastoderma pachypus Nann.-Bremek. Echinostelium apitectum K.D. Whitney Echinostelium arboreum H.W.Keller & T.E.Brooks Echinostelium bisporum (Olive & Stoianovitch) Whitney & Olive Echinostelium brooksii Whitney Echinostelium coelocephalum H.W.Keller & T.E.Brooks Echinostelium collicullosum K.D.Whitney & H.W.Keller Echinostelium corynophorum K.D.Whitney Echinostelium cribrarioides Alexop. Echinostelium elachiston Alexop. Echinostelium fragile Nann-Bremek. Echinostelium ladoi Pando Echinostelium lunatum L.S.Olive & Stoian. Echinostelium minutum de Bary Echinostelium paucifillum K.D.Whitney

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Barbeyella minutissima Meyl.

(1) Sporocarps(4) Stalked, (7) when mature, browish black (65. br Black). (8) Sporotheca globose, (9) 100-200 m in diam. (14) Spores per sporcarp: many. (15) Dehiscence petaloid.

(16) Hypothallus inconspicuous.

(18) Stalk present, (19) 300-700 m long, (22) arising from a an expanded base, (23) straight, (24) tapering to the apex, (25) opaque but translucent at base, (26) by transmitted light black (267. Black), (27) under reflected light black, (28) filled, (29) with granular material, (31) hollow apophysis lacking.

(32) Peridium persistent as a whole, (35) peridium, by transmitted light dark grayish brown (81 d. gr. Br.).

(36) Capillitium scanty, (37) showing some zonal differentiation, (39) scattered branched to no branching at all, (40) with some dichotomous branching to no dichotomous, (41) peripherial capillitium no forming a net, (42) peripherial capillitium with all or most of the ends free, (46) internal capillitium sinuate, (47) internal capillitium without or hardly with anastomoses.

(48) Columella present, (49) cylindrical, (50) about half way the sporotheca, (52) 40 m long, (53) by transmitted light black (267. Black).

(54) Spores free, (56) in mass, black (267. Black), (57) by transmitted light light brown (57. l. Br), (58) globose, (59) 7-9 m in diam., (61) distinctly, (62) densely, (63) warted. (66) Spore ornamentation regularly, (67) evenly distributed. (77) Spore wall thin. (78) Spore wall of uniform thickness, (79) by TEM bi-layered. (83) Spore-like body absent.

(84) Basal flagellar bodies of swarm cells unassociated. (90) Taxon images: barmin.gif.

Clastoderma debaryanum A.Blytt

(1) Sporocarps(2) Scattered or gregarious, (3) 1000-1300 m high, (4) stalked, (6) when fresh, dark grayish brown (62.d. gr Br), (7) when mature, moderate brown (58. m. Br). (8) Sporotheca globose, (9) 100-200 m in diam. (14) Spores per sporcarp: many.

(16) Hypothallus inconspicuous.

(18) Stalk present, (19) 900-1100 m long, (22) arising from a an expanded base, (23) straight or slightly flexousus, (24) with two portions divided by an oval swelling, (25) translucent, (26) by transmitted light strong yellow (84. s. Y) and moderate redish brown (43. m. r Br) (the upper section), (28) filled, (29) with granular material, (30) up to 1/2 to 2/3, or more (the part below the swelling), (31) hollow apophysis lacking.

(32) Peridium persistent as fragments which cling to the tips of the capillitium, (33) when mature as a collar, (34) 20-28 m in diam, (35) peridium, by transmitted light moderate redish brown (43. m. r Br).

(36) Capillitium well developed, (37) showing some zonal differentiation, (39) scattered branched, (40) mostly splitting dicotomously, (41) peripherial capillitium no forming a net, (42) peripherial capillitium with frecuent free ends, (46) internal capillitium sinuate or rigid, (47) internal capillitium without or hardly with anastomoses.

(48) Columella present, (49) conical, (50) reaching c. 1/3 the total height of the sporotheca to very short or absent, (51) dissipating in the primary capillitial branches, (53) by transmitted light light brown (57. l. Br).

(54) Spores free, (56) in mass, dark grayish brown (62. d. gy Br), (57) by transmitted light light brownish gray (63 l. br.Gy), (58) globose-crested, (59) 8-10(-12) m in diam., (61) faintly, (62) densely, (63) warted. (66) Spore ornamentation regularly, (67) evenly distributed. (78) Spore wall of uniform thickness, (79) by TEM bi-layered. (83) Spore-like body absent.

(84) Basal flagellar bodies of swarm cells unassociated. (86) Protoplasmodium, (87) translucent white.

Clastoderma pachypus Nann.-Bremek.

(1) Sporocarps(2) Scattered to gregarious, (3) (213-)250-410(-460) m high, (4) stalked, (6) when fresh, rosaceous-brown, (7) when mature, moderate brown (58. m. Br). (8) Sporotheca globose, (9) (76-)90-125 m in diam. (14) Spores per sporcarp: many.

(16) Hypothallus inconspicuous.

(18) Stalk present, (19) 115-300(-330) m long, (20) 4-6 m diam at the apex, (21) 30-45(-80) m diam at the base, (22) arising from a a non expanded base (though some have a rather wide base), (23) slightly flexousus, (24) tapering to the apex, (25) translucent, (26) by transmitted light brilliant yellow (83. brill. Y) or moderate yellow (87. m. Y) (in the lower section, where the granular deposits are), (28) filled, (29) with granular material, (30) up to 1/2 to 2/3, or more (usually), (31) hollow apophysis lacking.

(32) Peridium persistent as fragments which cling to the tips of the capillitium, (33) when mature as a collar (not always visible), (34) 15-20 m in diam.

(36) Capillitium scanty to well developed, (37) showing some zonal differentiation, (39) scattered branched, (40) dichotomous or mostly splitting dicotomously, (41) peripherial capillitium forming a complete net, (42) peripherial capillitium with few or no free ends, (46) internal capillitium sinuate, (47) internal capillitium mostly anastomosed (in a few poorly developed sporocarps) or completely or nearly anastomosed (usually).

(48) Columella present, (49) cylindrical, (50) reaching c. 1/3 the total height of the sporotheca (at the most) or very short or absent, (51) dissipating in the primary capillitial branches (which are few) or folked in two thick primary branches, (52) 16-24 m long (down to 8 in DWM 4356), (53) by transmitted light dark olive brown (96. d.Ol Br) to black (267. Black).

(54) Spores free, (57) by transmitted light light brownish gray (63 l. br.Gy), (58) globose-crested, (59) (9-)10-12(-13) m in diam., (61) faintly, (62) scattered to densely, (63) warted. (66) Spore ornamentation regularly, (67) evenly distributed. (78) Spore wall of uniform thickness, (79) by TEM bi-layered. (83) Spore-like body absent.

(84) Basal flagellar bodies of swarm cells unassociated. (88) Living on bark of living trees. (90) Taxon images: clapac.gif.

Echinostelium apitectum K.D. Whitney

(1) Sporocarps(2) Scattered or gregarious, (3) 100-212.5-350 m high, (4) stalked, (6) when fresh, hyaline or white (263. White) or grayish yellowish pink (32. gy. y Pink) or pale cinnamom, (7) when mature, yellowish white (92. y White). (8) Sporotheca globose, (9) 30-48.75-65 m in diam. (14) Spores per sporcarp: many.

(16) Hypothallus inconspicuous.

(18) Stalk present, (19) 70-172.5-290 m long, (20) 1-2-3 m diam at the apex, (21) 10-16.5-22 m diam at the base, (22) arising from a a non expanded base, (23) slightly flexousus, (24) tapering to the apex, (25) translucent, (26) by transmitted light hyaline or pale yellow (89. p.Y) or strong yellow (84. s. Y), (28) filled, (29) with granular material, (30) up to 1/2 or 2/3, or more, (31) hollow apophysis lacking.

(32) Peridium persisting bassally, (33) when mature as a collar or a saucer-shaped calyculus, (34) 3-6-10 m in diam.

(36) Capillitium absent or rudimentary.

(48) Columella present or absent, (49) flattened or cylindrical or fusiform, (52) 0-2.25-4.5 m long, (53) by transmitted light light brown (57. l. Br) or dark olive brown (96. d.Ol Br) or black (267. Black).

(54) Spores free, (56) in mass, hyaline or yellowish white (92. y. White), (57) by transmitted light hyaline or grayish yellowish pink (32. gy. y Pink) or faintly cinnamon or light olive gray (112. l. Ol Gy), (58) globose, (59) 6-9.5-12 m in diam., (61) minutely, (63) roughened or smooth. (66) Spore ornamentation regularly, (67) evenly distributed. (78) Spore wall of uniform thickness, (79) by TEM bi-layered. (83) Spore-like body present.

(84) Basal flagellar bodies of swarm cells unassociated. (88) Living on bark of living trees. (89) Of Juniperus phoenicia, or Pinus sp.

Echinostelium arboreum H.W.Keller & T.E.Brooks

(1) Sporocarps(2) Isolated to gregarious, (3) (100-)120(-150) m high, (4) stalked, (6) when fresh, brilliant yellow (83. brill. Y), (7) when mature, moderate yellow (87. m. Y.). (8) Sporotheca globose, (9) 40-50 m in diam. (14) Spores per sporcarp: many.

(16) Hypothallus inconspicuous.

(18) Stalk present, (19) (55-)60-78(-110) m long, (20) (3-)4(-5) m diam at the apex, (22) arising from a an expanded base, (23) straight, (24) tapering to the apex, (25) translucent, (26) by transmitted light brilliant yellow (83. brill. Y), (28) filled, (29) with granular material, (30) up to 2/3, or more, (31) hollow apophysis lacking.

(32) Peridium persisting bassally, (33) when mature as a collar, (34) 8-12(-15) m in diam.

(36) Capillitium scanty to well developed, (37) showing some zonal differentiation, (39) scattered branched, (40) dichotomous, (41) peripherial capillitium no forming a net, (42) peripherial capillitium with all or most of the ends free, (46) internal capillitium rigid, (47) internal capillitium without or hardly with anastomoses.

(48) Columella present, (49) cylindrical, (52) 19-30 m long, (53) by transmitted light yellowish white (92. y White).

(54) Spores free, (56) in mass, yellowish white (92. y. White), (57) by transmitted light hyaline or pale yellow (89. p. Y) or yellow, (58) globose, (59) (5-)6-9 m in diam., (61) minutely, (63) roughened. (66) Spore ornamentation regularly, (67) evenly distributed. (78) Spore wall of uniform thickness, (79) by TEM bi-layered. (83) Spore-like body absent.

(84) Basal flagellar bodies of swarm cells unassociated. (88) Living on bark of living trees. (90) Taxon images: echiarb.gif.

Echinostelium bisporum (Olive & Stoianovitch) Whitney & Olive

(1) Sporocarps(2) Isolated to scattered, (3) 19-26 m high, (4) stalked, (6) when fresh, hyaline, (7) when mature, hyaline. (9) Sporotheca 10-20 m in diam. (as two spores on on top of the other). (14) Spores per sporcarp: two.

(16) Hypothallus inconspicuous.

(18) Stalk present, (19) 7-13.5 m long, (20) 1-2 m diam at the apex, (22) arising from a a non expanded base, (23) straight, (24) cylindrical, (25) translucent, (26) by transmitted light hyaline, (28) hollow, (31) topped with a hollow apophysis.

(32) Peridium completely fugaceous.

(36) Capillitium absent.

(48) Columella absent.

(54) Spores free, (56) in mass, hyaline, (57) by transmitted light hyaline, (58) globose, (59) 7-10 m in diam., (61) minutely, (62) scattered, (63) punctate. (66) Spore ornamentation regularly, (67) evenly distributed. (78) Spore wall of uniform thickness, (79) by TEM bi-layered. (83) Spore-like body absent.

(84) Basal flagellar bodies of swarm cells unassociated. (90) Taxon images: echibis.gif.

Echinostelium brooksii Whitney

(1) Sporocarps(2) Scattered to gregarious, (3) 100-200 m high, (4) stalked, (6) when fresh, grayish yellowish pink (32. gy. y Pink). (8) Sporotheca globose, (9) 35-60 m in diam. (14) Spores per sporcarp: many.

(16) Hypothallus inconspicuous.

(18) Stalk present, (19) 65-140 m long, (20) 1-2(-3) m diam at the apex, (22) arising from a an expanded base, (23) straight, (24) tapering to the apex, (25) translucent, (26) by transmitted light pale yellow (89. p.Y), (28) filled, (29) with granular material, (30) up to 2/3, or more, (31) hollow apophysis lacking.

(32) Peridium persisting bassally, (33) when mature as a collar, (34) 2-4 m in diam.

(48) Columella present, (49) pedunculate-hemispheric to pedunculate-lenticular, (52) 3-5 m long, (53) by transmitted light brown or dark olive brown (96. d.Ol Br).

(54) Spores free, (57) by transmitted light hyaline or grayish yellowish pink (32. gy. y Pink), (58) globose, (59) 10-14 m in diam., (61) minutely, (63) roughened. (66) Spore ornamentation regularly, (67) evenly distributed. (78) Spore wall with a diffuse thinner area, (79) by TEM bi-layered. (83) Spore-like body absent.

(84) Basal flagellar bodies of swarm cells unassociated. (88) Living on bark of living trees. (89) Of Juniperus oxycedrus. (90) Taxon images: echibro.gif.

Echinostelium coelocephalum H.W.Keller & T.E.Brooks

(1) Sporocarps(2) Scattered to gregarious, (3) 47-70(-85) m high, (4) stalked, (6) when fresh, white (263. White) or yellowish white (92. y White). (8) Sporotheca globose, (9) 30-40 m in diam. (14) Spores per sporcarp: many.

(16) Hypothallus inconspicuous.

(18) Stalk present, (19) 37-70 m long, (20) 1.5-2.5 m diam at the apex, (22) arising from a an expanded base, (23) straight, (24) tapering to the apex, (25) translucent, (26) by transmitted light pale yellow (89. p.Y) (very), (28) hollow, (30) up to 1/3, (31) hollow apophysis lacking.

(32) Peridium persisting bassally, (33) when mature as a collar, (34) 5-8 m in diam.

(48) Columella absent.

(54) Spores free, (56) in mass, yellowish white (92. y. White), (57) by transmitted light hyaline, (58) globose or subglobose, (59) 9-12 m in diam., (61) minutely, (63) roughened. (66) Spore ornamentation regularly, (67) evenly distributed. (78) Spore wall bearing spore-to-spore thickened articular areas, (79) by TEM bi-layered. (80) Articular surfaces circular. (81) Articular surfaces prominent. (82) Articular surfaces with sharply truncate margins. (83) Spore-like body present.

(84) Basal flagellar bodies of swarm cells unassociated. (90) Taxon images: echicoe.gif.

Echinostelium collicullosum K.D.Whitney & H.W.Keller

(1) Sporocarps(2) Scattered to gregarious, (3) 70-150 m high, (4) stalked, (6) when fresh, white (263. White) or yellowish white (92. y White). (8) Sporotheca globose, (9) 30-50 m in diam. (14) Spores per sporcarp: many.

(16) Hypothallus inconspicuous.

(18) Stalk present, (19) (54-)70-120 m long, (20) 1-3 m diam at the apex, (21) 6 m diam at the base ((or more)), (22) arising from a an expanded base, (23) straight, (24) tapering to the apex, (25) translucent, (26) by transmitted light pale yellow (89. p.Y), (28) filled, (29) with granular material, (30) up to 2/3, or more, (31) hollow apophysis lacking.

(32) Peridium persisting bassally, (33) when mature as a collar (adhering tightly to the spore-like body).

(48) Columella absent.

(54) Spores free, (56) in mass, white (263. White), (57) by transmitted light hyaline, (58) globose, (59) 9-13 m in diam., (61) minutely, (63) roughened. (66) Spore ornamentation regularly, (67) evenly distributed. (78) Spore wall bearing spore-to-spore thickened articular areas, (79) by TEM bi-layered. (80) Articular surfaces circular. (81) Articular surfaces thin. (82) Articular surfaces with edges tapering to the spore surface. (83) Spore-like body present.

(84) Basal flagellar bodies of swarm cells unassociated. (88) Living on bark of living trees. (90) Taxon images: echicol.gif.

Echinostelium corynophorum K.D.Whitney

(1) Sporocarps(2) Scattered to gregarious, (3) 90-150 m high, (4) stalked, (6) when fresh, white (263. White). (8) Sporotheca globose, (9) 40-60 m in diam. (14) Spores per sporcarp: many.

(16) Hypothallus inconspicuous.

(18) Stalk present, (19) 50-130 m long, (20) 1 m diam at the apex, (22) arising from a an expanded base, (23) straight, (24) tapering to the apex, (25) translucent, (26) by transmitted light hyaline, (28) filled, (29) with granular material, (30) up to 2/3, or more, (31) hollow apophysis lacking.

(32) Peridium persisting bassally, (33) when mature as a collar, (34) 2-5 m in diam.

(48) Columella present, (49) pedunculate-hemispheric to pedunculate-lenticular, (52) 3.5-6 m long, (53) by transmitted light light brown (57. l. Br).

(54) Spores free, (56) in mass, white (263. White), (57) by transmitted light hyaline, (58) globose, (59) (7-)9-15(-16) m in diam., (61) minutely, (63) roughened or smooth. (66) Spore ornamentation regularly, (67) evenly distributed. (78) Spore wall bearing spore-to-spore thickened articular areas, (79) by TEM bi-layered. (80) Articular surfaces circular. (81) Articular surfaces thin. (82) Articular surfaces with edges tapering to the spore surface. (83) Spore-like body absent.

(84) Basal flagellar bodies of swarm cells unassociated. (88) Living on bark of living trees. (89) Of Tetraclinis articulata. (90) Taxon images: echicor.gif.

Echinostelium cribrarioides Alexop

(1) Sporocarps(2) Scattered to gregarious, (3) 250-500 m high, (4) stalked, (6) when fresh, brilliant yellow (83. brill. Y) or cream. (8) Sporotheca globose, (9) 60-120 m in diam. (14) Spores per sporcarp: many.

(16) Hypothallus inconspicuous.

(18) Stalk present, (19) 150-350 m long, (20) 5-12 m diam at the apex, (22) arising from a an expanded base, (23) straight to nodding, (24) tapering to the apex, (25) translucent, (26) by transmitted light brilliant yellow (83. brill. Y) to cream, (28) filled, (29) with granular material, (30) up to 2/3, or more, (31) hollow apophysis lacking.

(32) Peridium persisting bassally, (33) when mature as a collar, (34) 6-15 m in diam.

(36) Capillitium well developed, (37) showing some zonal differentiation, (39) scattered branched, (40) mostly splitting dicotomously, (41) peripherial capillitium forming a complete net, (42) peripherial capillitium with few or no free ends, (43) peripherial capilitium threads stout, (44) peripherial capillitium threads 1-2 m thick, (46) internal capillitium rigid.

(48) Columella present, (49) conical to cylindrical, (50) reaching c. 1/3 the total height of the sporotheca to very short or absent, (52) 4-25 m long.

(54) Spores free, (56) in mass, yellowish white (92. y. White), (57) by transmitted light hyaline to yellow, (58) globose, (59) 8-10 m in diam., (61) minutely, (63) roughened. (66) Spore ornamentation regularly, (67) evenly distributed. (78) Spore wall bearing spore-to-spore thickened articular areas, (79) by TEM bi-layered. (80) Articular surfaces circular. (81) Articular surfaces prominent. (82) Articular surfaces with sharply truncate margins. (83) Spore-like body absent.

(84) Basal flagellar bodies of swarm cells unassociated. (90) Taxon images: echicri.gif.

Echinostelium elachiston Alexop.

(1) Sporocarps(2) Scattered to gregarious, (3) 90-110(-130) m high, (4) stalked, (6) when fresh, brilliant yellow (83. brill. Y), (7) when mature, moderate yellow (87. m. Y.). (8) Sporotheca globose, (9) 30-40 m in diam. (14) Spores per sporcarp: many.

(16) Hypothallus inconspicuous.

(18) Stalk present, (19) 50-70(-90) m long, (20) 4-5 m diam at the apex, (22) arising from a an expanded base, (23) straight, (24) tapering to the apex, (25) translucent, (26) by transmitted light brilliant yellow (83. brill. Y), (30) up to 1/3 to absent, (31) hollow apophysis lacking.

(32) Peridium persisting bassally, (33) when mature as a collar, (34) 9-20 m in diam.

(36) Capillitium absent to rudimentary, (39) no branching at all.

(48) Columella present or absent.

(54) Spores free, (57) by transmitted light hyaline or yellow, (58) globose or subpolyhedral, (59) 6-8(-11) m in diam., (63) smooth. (78) Spore wall of uniform thickness, (79) by TEM bi-layered. (83) Spore-like body absent.

(84) Basal flagellar bodies of swarm cells unassociated. (88) Living on bark of living trees. (90) Taxon images: echiela.gif.

Echinostelium fragile Nann-Bremek.

(1) Sporocarps(2) Scattered to gregarious, (3) 100-150 m high, (4) stalked, (6) when fresh, grayish yellowish pink (32. gy. y Pink), (7) when mature, pink. (8) Sporotheca globose, (9) 30-50 m in diam. (14) Spores per sporcarp: many.

(16) Hypothallus inconspicuous.

(18) Stalk present, (19) 69-130 m long, (20) 1-3 m diam at the apex, (22) arising from a an expanded base, (23) straight, (24) tapering to the apex, (25) translucent, (26) by transmitted light pale yellow (89. p.Y), (28) filled, (29) with granular material, (30) up to 2/3, or more, (31) hollow apophysis lacking.

(32) Peridium persisting bassally, (33) when mature as a collar, (34) 2-5 m in diam.

(48) Columella present, (49) fusiform, (52) 5-10 m long, (53) by transmitted light dark olive brown (96. d.Ol Br).

(54) Spores free, (56) in mass, pink, (57) by transmitted light hyaline to grayish yellowish pink (32. gy. y Pink), (58) globose, (59) 11-14(-15) m in diam., (61) minutely, (63) roughened. (66) Spore ornamentation regularly, (67) evenly distributed. (78) Spore wall with a diffuse thinner area, (79) by TEM bi-layered. (83) Spore-like body absent.

(84) Basal flagellar bodies of swarm cells unassociated. (88) Living on bark of living trees. (90) Taxon images: echifra.gif.

Echinostelium ladoi Pando

(1) Sporocarps(2) Isolated or scattered, (3) 155-240 m high, (4) stalked, (6) when fresh, white (263. White). (8) Sporotheca globose, (9) 35-40 m in diam. (14) Spores per sporcarp: many.

(16) Hypothallus inconspicuous.

(18) Stalk present, (19) 120-200 m long, (20) 1-2 m diam at the apex, (21) (5-)13-20 m diam at the base, (22) arising from a a non expanded base, (23) slightly flexousus, (24) tapering to the apex, (25) translucent, (26) by transmitted light hyaline (in the upper section) or moderate yellow (87. m. Y) (where the granular material is), (28) filled, (29) with granular material, (30) up to 1/2 (usually) or 2/3, or more (ocasionally), (31) hollow apophysis lacking.

(32) Peridium persisting bassally (although inconspicuous).

(48) Columella absent.

(54) Spores free, (56) in mass, white (263. White), (57) by transmitted light hyaline, (58) globose, (59) 6.5-7.3-8.5 m in diam., (61) minutely, (62) scattered, (63) roughened. (66) Spore ornamentation regularly, (67) evenly distributed. (78) Spore wall bearing spore-to-spore thickened articular areas, (79) by TEM bi-layered. (80) Articular surfaces as two crescents confronted. (81) Articular surfaces prominent. (82) Articular surfaces with sharply truncate margins. (83) Spore-like body present (but slightly larger than the spores, 8-9 m in diam.).

(84) Basal flagellar bodies of swarm cells unassociated. (88) Living on bark of living trees. (89) Of Juniperus oxycedrus and Tetraclinis articulata. (90) Taxon images: echilad.gif.

Echinostelium lunatum L.S.Olive & Stoian.

(1) Sporocarps(2) Scattered to gregarious, (3) 20-50 m high, (4) stalked, (7) when mature, pink to light orange (52. l. O). (8) Sporotheca globose (sometimes irregular in outline). (14) Spores per sporcarp: many.

(16) Hypothallus inconspicuous.

(18) Stalk present, (19) 15-30 m long, (20) 1.5-3 m diam at the apex, (22) arising from a an expanded base, (23) straight, (24) tapering to the apex, (25) translucent, (28) filled, (29) with granular material, (31) hollow apophysis lacking.

(32) Peridium persisting bassally, (33) when mature as a collar (minute).

(48) Columella present, (49) crescent-shaped in optical section (attached to the midpoint of the flat edge), (53) by transmitted light brown.

(54) Spores free, (58) globose, (59) 6-13 m in diam., (61) minutely, (63) roughened. (66) Spore ornamentation regularly, (67) evenly distributed. (78) Spore wall bearing spore-to-spore thickened articular areas, (79) by TEM bi-layered. (80) Articular surfaces circular. (81) Articular surfaces prominent. (82) Articular surfaces with sharply truncate margins. (83) Spore-like body absent.

(84) Basal flagellar bodies of swarm cells unassociated. (90) Taxon images: echilun.gif.

Echinostelium minutum de Bary

(1) Sporocarps(2) Scattered to gregarious, (3) 250-550 m high, (4) stalked, (6) when fresh, white (263. White) or grayish yellowish pink (32. gy. y Pink), (7) when mature, yellowish white (92. y White). (8) Sporotheca globose, (9) 40-70 m in diam. (14) Spores per sporcarp: many.

(16) Hypothallus inconspicuous.

(18) Stalk present, (19) 210-490 m long, (20) 1.5-3 m diam at the apex, (22) arising from a an expanded base, (23) slightly flexousus, (24) tapering to the apex, (25) translucent, (26) by transmitted light hyaline or pale yellow (89. p.Y), (28) filled, (29) with granular material, (30) up to 2/3, or more, (31) hollow apophysis lacking.

(32) Peridium persisting bassally, (33) when mature as a collar, (34) 4-9 m in diam.

(36) Capillitium scanty to well developed, (37) showing some zonal differentiation, (39) scattered branched, (40) with some dichotomous branching (rarelly) or no dichotomous (usually), (41) peripherial capillitium no forming a net, (42) peripherial capillitium with all or most of the ends free.

(48) Columella present, (49) conical or cylindrical, (51) dissipating in the primary capillitial branches, (52) 3-10(-15) m long, (53) by transmitted light moderate yellowish-brown (77. m. y Br).

(54) Spores free, (56) in mass, hyaline or yellowish white (92. y. White), (57) by transmitted light hyaline or grayish yellowish pink (32. gy. y Pink), (58) globose or subpolyhedral, (59) 6-8(-10) m in diam., (61) minutely, (63) roughened. (66) Spore ornamentation regularly, (67) evenly distributed. (78) Spore wall of uniform thickness, (79) by TEM bi-layered. (83) Spore-like body absent.

(84) Basal flagellar bodies of swarm cells unassociated. (90) Taxon images: echimin.gif.

Echinostelium paucifillum K.D.Whitney

(1) Sporocarps(2) Scattered to gregarious, (3) 225-350 m high, (4) stalked, (6) when fresh, grayish yellowish pink (32. gy. y Pink), (7) when mature, pink to pink-brown. (8) Sporotheca globose, (9) 45-70 m in diam. (14) Spores per sporcarp: many.

(16) Hypothallus inconspicuous.

(18) Stalk present, (19) 140-225 m long, (20) 2-3 m diam at the apex, (22) arising from a an expanded base, (23) straight or slightly flexousus, (24) tapering to the apex, (25) translucent, (28) filled, (29) with granular material, (31) hollow apophysis lacking.

(32) Peridium persisting bassally, (33) when mature as a collar, (34) 3-6 m in diam.

(36) Capillitium rudimentary, (39) scattered branched, (40) no dichotomous, (41) peripherial capillitium no forming a net, (42) peripherial capillitium with all or most of the ends free, (47) internal capillitium without or hardly with anastomoses.

(48) Columella present, (49) conical, (50) about 2/3 of the spore containing part height or about half way the sporotheca, (52) 12-30 m long, (53) by transmitted light light brown (57. l. Br) to dark olive brown (96. d.Ol Br).

(54) Spores free, (56) in mass, pink, (57) by transmitted light hyaline to grayish yellowish pink (32. gy. y Pink), (58) globose, (59) 11.5-15.5 m in diam., (61) minutely, (63) roughened. (66) Spore ornamentation regularly, (67) evenly distributed. (78) Spore wall with a well-defined thinner area, (79) by TEM bi-layered. (83) Spore-like body absent.

(84) Basal flagellar bodies of swarm cells unassociated. (90) Taxon images: echipau.gif.

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 Last update: 15 July 1999